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Blood pressure generally means arterial blood pressure.Persistent high blood pressure that may damage the arteries and heart.
Blood pressure varies naturally with activity, rising during exercise or stress and falling during rest. It also varies among individuals, gradually increasing with age and weight. It is usually measured by using a mercury sphygmomanometer and is expressed in mmHg. The blood pressure of a resting healthy young adult should not be more than 120/80mmHg. In general, a person is considered to have hypertension when his or her blood pressure is persistently higher than 140/90 mmHg, even at rest. In practice, hypertension is often classified as mild, moderate or severe.
Mild: 140-160/90-100
Moderate: 160-180/100-110
Severe: 180-210/110-120
Hypertension does not usually cause symptoms, but, if your blood pressure is very high, you may have headaches, dizziness or blurred vision. Hypertension is sometimes called the “silent killer” because individuals may have a fatal stroke or heart attack without warning. Normally it is detected at routine examination. Family history of hypertension and prior history of renal disease are common in many cases. The complications of hypertension include angina and in serious cases left ventricular failure or cerebroarticular disease. However, in common practice many cases are due to smoking, tobacco chewing, excess intake of alcohol defective diet regime.
Palpitation and sweating should be immediately investigated. Kidney functions should be carefully seen. In some cases, backache or urinary tract infection may be due to chronic pyelonephritis. In many cases of hypertension the optic fundi is abnormal. Obesity and hyperlipidaemia may be the cause of hypertension & ischaemic heart disease. The adverse effects of hypertension involve the central nervous system, the retina, the heart and the kidney.
It is important that you have your blood pressure measured routinely at least every two years after age 18. If your blood pressure is more than 140/90 mmHg, your doctor may ask you to return in a few weeks so that he or she can check it again. Some individuals become anxious when visiting their doctor, which may cause a temporary rise in blood pressure. Therefore, diagnosis of hypertension is usually not made unless you have elevated blood pressure on three separate occasions. If your readings are variable, your doctor may arrange for you to have a portable device so that you can measure your bloodpressure regularly at home .
If you have hypertension your doctor may arrange for tests that checks for organ damage. Test for heart damage include echocardiography or ECG. Your eyes may be examined to look for damaged blood vessels. You may also have tests to look for other factors such as a high blood cholesterol level, that may increase your risk of a heart attack.
If you are young or have severe hypertension your doctor may recommend tests to identify the underlying cause. For example,urine and blood tests, lipid profile and ultrasound scanning may be arranged to look for kidney disease or abnormal disorders
If you have mild hypertension changing your life style is often is the most effective way of lowering your blood pressure.
-weight reduction in obese and overweight patient .
-heavy alcohol consumption should be avoided.
-excess salt consumption is to be avoided.
-encourage regular exercise and walking.
-smoking is to be avoided.
-lipid profile (Cholestrol, HDL,LDL and Tryglycerides) .
should be checked and treatment given to lower them if high and advise fat free diet.
Hypertension is deeply worked out condition, while primary hypertension is manageable by medicines, meditation or change of life style, the secondary hypertension need thorough investigation,There may be various factors linked, like renal diseases, endocrine disorders, or diseases of arteries and heart.