The inability of the body to utilize the glucose for the purpose of energy production due to inadequate amount of or loss of sensitivity to the
Diabetes mellitus nowadays has come out in the form of a most common chronic disease occurring in the population; it has come out as an infectious epidemic. It’s more commonly called by the name “sugar” or just “diabetes”. In this disorder either the pancreas produce the insufficient amount of insulin or body cells do not respond to the insulin.
Normally the insulin is produced by the pancreas and enables the body cells to absorb the blood glucose from the bloodstream. In diabetes mellitus the cells have to use other source of energy, which may lead to toxins formation as a byproduct. Unused glucose accumulates in the blood and urine, causing symptoms such as excessive urination and thirst.
DM also brings about the pathophysiological changes in the organs like adult blindness, non- traumatic lower extremity amputation (diabetic foot), and renal problem. Factors contributing are the metabolic dysfunction, lack of exercise, irregularity, stress and busy life.
What are the types and causes?
There are 2 main type of diabetes, designated as type1 diabetes and type2 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes
This type of diabetes occurs when the pancreas produces far too little or no insulin. It is hereditary in character and develops before the age of 30 years. The patient is young, lean and thin. He requires the insulin therapy.
Type 2 diabetes
It’s the most common form of diabetes. In this condition the pancreas continues to produce the insulin, but the cells in the body stop responding to the insulin and hence become resistant to its effect. Most commonly affects the people above 40. It develops very slowly and is often unnoticeable for many years.
Diabetes mellitus can some time develop during pregnancy. This condition is called Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and is usually treated with insulin. It usually disappears after the childbirth.
Type 1 diabetes is caused by abnormal bodily rxn. In which the immune system destroys the insulin secreting cells. In some cases the destruction may also be due to inflammation of the pancreas. It could also be genetically carried.
The main cause of the type 2 diabetes is the genetics and obesity.
Others factors responsible are:
- Some kind of chemicals or drugs like those containing the beta blockers and thyroid hormone.
- Some endocrinal diseases such as hyperthyroidism, hyperpituitarism, Cushing’s syndrome and acromegaly.
- Inflammation, cancer or cyst formation in pancreas.
What are the symptoms?
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop very quickly but those of type 2 diabetes develop slowly. Some of the common symptoms include:
• Polyuria (increased amount of urination)
• Polydipsia (increased amount of liquid or water intake)
• Polyphagia (increased amount of food intake)
• Glycosuria (appearance of glucose in urine)
• Blurred vision due to change in shape of lenses brought about by high glucose level and its absorption.
• Rapid and deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing
• Nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain
• It may also lead to comma
• Slow healing infections
• Confusion of mind
Complications of diabetes
It may be categorized under 2 groups: the acute and the chronic
1. Microvascular complication: ophthalmic disorders and neuropathy.
2. Macrovascular complications: these include the coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral vascular disorder, and cerebrovascular diseases.
3. Diarrhea, uropathy, sexual dysfunction, dermatogic complaints like eczema, cellulitis and gangrene of the distal part of the limb (diabetic foot).
• Age above 45
• Family history
• Diabetes during pregnancy
• High cholesterol
• High blood pressure
• Proper diet and nourishment: avoid unsaturated fats and oils, moderate salt consumption especially when there is high blood pressure. Rice, legumes, pasta and other complex carbohydrate are the basis of a healthy diet
• Proper exercise is also necessary
• Get your A1C checked: glucose control over last 3 months.
• Control over blood glucose level
• Control over blood pressure
• Control over the cholesterol level
• Keep special care of your feet because diabetes increases the risk of skin infection and ulcers.
• Take care of the gums also. Stop smoking.
• Be active
Diabetes mellitus may cause premature death usually due to cardiovascularcomplications.
Acetic acid : Large quantity of pale urine, unquenchable thirst, and great debility.
Abroma augusta : Frequent and profuse urination, dryness of the mouth and great thirst, urination leads exhaustion, Fishy odour of the urine, Diabetes mellitus and insipidus.
Argentum metallicum : Polyuria, frequent urination, urine profuse at night, turbid and sweetish odour, restless sleep, frightful dreams, edematous swollen feet, flatulent distention of abdomen.
Arsenicum album : Urine scanty, burning albuminous, ascites, all prevailing debility, restlessness, burning thirst, drinks often but little at time.
Helleborus : Frequent urging to urinate but small quantities emitted, profuse urination, urine pale and watery, dropsical swelling.
Insulin : Supposed to be specific and useful in case of carbuncles resulting from DM.
Lacticum acidum : Frequent passing of large quantities of sugar in urine, great thirst, rheumatic pains in joints.
Natrum Phosphoricum : They are of great value in diabetes. Profuse urination, urine loaded with bile, lithic deposition in urine, sedentary habits especially when there is a succession of boils.
Phosphoricum acidum : Frequent and profuse watery urination, milk-like urine, great debility.
Phosphorus : DM in phthisis in impotency, urine contain large amount of salt in the morning and excess of sugar in the evening.
Plumbum metallicum : Urine frequent, scanty, albuminous, low specific gravity.
Rhus aromatica : Large quantity of urine, urine pale, albuminous, specific gravity low.
Uranium nitricum : Profuse urination, debility, acid in urine, incontinence, unable to retain urine, excessive thirst, diarrhea of the dyspepticus.